Sir Rudolf Bing (Vienna 1902 – New York 1997) originated the Edinburgh Festival with composer Hans Gál in 1947 as a way of bringing harmony through music to a Europe shattered by war, and to enable a “flowering of the human spirit.” He was a conductor in Germany, and helped to found the Glyndebourne Festival Opera, before moving to Edinburgh. He ended his career as General Manager of the Metropolitan Opera House New York. credit: Edinburgh Festival Society